Jumat, 11 Maret 2011



History records, of the United States have experienced an event they call The Great Depression. During the decade 1920 - 1930, the U.S. economy rocked by the State - European countries are boycotting products - products for the U.S.. In fact, Europe is a strategic partner of the United States. New America can rise again in the 1930s, where FD Roosevelt became president. No responsibility - the responsibility, that period also gave birth to the man who they claim that father of the world economy (Adam Smith). American economy recovered to enter the second world war so that America can win the World War II. Generation after generation of the second world war became prosperous in America. Generation is called the Baby Boomers generation. They called the baby boomer generation ages about 45 to 70 years old at this time. Among them are: Bill Clinton, George Bush Jr., Madonna, Hillary Clinton and Clint Eastwood. At that time, the spirit of American imperialism is still growing, but seeing the damage caused by war, they finally reorder strategy to widen the powers of the State. Many Americans who argue that to implement colonization?, when it is not necessary to use force again, but done from behind the desk. One of the new colonial model of American products is this TOEFL. Therefore, the TOEFL meant in the Indonesian language to test the ability of English as a foreign language?, not a second language, or first language.

Based in Washington, D.C., the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) is a nonprofit organization committed to researching the relationship between language and culture. Founded in 1959, its first director was Charles A. Ferguson (1921-1998), who had administered similar programs in the Middle East and taught as a professor at Harvard University. Ferguson guided the center to develop practical solutions for the applied language and literacy concerns of international and national governments. One of Ferguson's earliest projects was to develop a test that would quantify the command of the language that ESL (English-as-a-Second-Language) students and government employees had. Ferguson and fellow applied linguistics researchers developed the TOEFL test for the first five years of the CAL. In 1964, the first official TOEFL test was taken at the center. Since the late 1960s, the TOEFL test has been administered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS), an international standardized-testing organization. According to ETS, between 1964 and 2008, 24 million people, largely international students, have taken the test. Introduced in 2005, the Internet-based test has replaced the computer-based and paper-based formats, with the computer-based results ruled no longer valid as of 2006.

Since the early 1970s, the 15-member TOEFL board has dealt with specific problems regarding the organization. This board is comprised of educators and government and industry representatives who are involved in international education. A board of 12 language specialists form the TOEFL Committee of Examiners, which addresses any concerns with the test's content and methodology, keeping the test valid. Since 1998, the paper test has been made up of 30 listening-based questions, 40 "written-expression" questions, 50 reading-comprehension questions, and a 300-word essay. The Internet-based test includes four sections: answering questions on a 700-word passage and questions on 30 minutes of an audio sample, as well as six speaking and written-composition tasks. The Internet-based test has also implemented tables and other formats into the test.

Many higher education institutions or employment agencies - domestically and overseas - demanding professionalism of English whose native language candidates is not English. One of the measuring device is the TOEFL (Test of Home as a Foreign Language). Many of the prospective tests have failed to obtain the required score (= passing score) because they do not understand the English language in a comprehensive and did not rule out that they do not have tips that support to assist the acquisition of a higher score. TOEFL tests usually presents three parts, namely Listening, Structure, and Reading and Vocabulary. Structure is the second part, which is not less important than the two other parts, because the score of TOEFL score is the accumulation of the three part test. Structure of the TOEFL test includes a test of knowledge, skills and mastery of English with the questions that break it requires a deep understanding that, for example, one grain of matter will cover a fairly broad sense.

My brother, Dick, ... has just Bought a Cadillac.

(A) works in Birmingham,

(B) WHO works in a private bank,

(C) is working in Melbourne,

(D) is now in London,

Item about the above, for example, will be answered quickly and accurately by someone who understands the predicate sentence, relative clause, and tenses.

The allocation of time for commencing work on the TOEFL is very short - usually one test structure consists of fifty multiple choice questions that must be completed within fifty five minutes. Therefore, understanding person who will take the TOEFL on the English language as a whole and in detail is needed in taking the TOEFL for he was convinced that the answer to the points about going right in a relatively short time. Comparison between the number of grains of questions and the time available is also demanding a separate tips for achieving a high score. TOEFL will be the same for everyone, regardless of age category, academic level, or level of difficulty questions. Institution user will determine the results of TOEFL or require only a minimum score. To be able to solve problems in both the TOEFL, is necessary for each participant to equip themselves with good preparation. One way is with a lot to learn from books about the TOEFL.

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